Studyuse of the mind to acquire knowledge
the locations, landforms, and climates of Mexico, Central America, and South America and their effects on Mayan, Aztec, and Incan economies, trade, and development of urban societies.
The Rise of the Incas
Key Terms and People
the vast grassy plains of Argentina and Uruguay
a high plain centered in Bolivia
flat strips of level land
Inca emperor who expanded the Inca Empire and the
the management of communication and relationships between peoples and nations
the last great Sapa Inca ruler
The World of the Incas
Geography of South America:
Eastern = tropical lowlands (rivers) like the Amazon River, hot and steamy climate
Southern = Pampas or grassy plains
Western = Andes Mountains (high plain, Lake Titicaca) cold climate
West of the Andies = (coastal region) hot dry climate
Ealry cultures: fished, hunted deer, and mined gold, silver, and copper
Crops (terrace farming): chili peppers, squash, beans, cotton, peanuts, 200 different types of potato, and the main crop was corn
Livestock: llamas, alpacas, vicuna
The Inca Empire
No writing system, only oral tradition. Historians believe Incans settled in the valley of Cuzco (Peru) about A.D. 1200.
Lead by warrior kings (Sapa Incas), Pachacuti took power in 1438, expanded the territory, built army. Huayna Capa took power in 1493, about 10 million people lived there in relative peace until he died. Shortly after his death the Spanish Invaded and cnquered the Inca Empire.
The Incas had a highly organized society. They worshiped a number of gods and nature spirits.
Study Guide Questions
How did farmers grow crops in the Andes?
How did Pachacuti expand the Inca empire?
What resources did the Andean peoples have?
Why did Andean geography require advanced farming techniques?
Who began the Inca Empire?
What traits do you think made Pachacuti a successful empire builder?