Chapter 16, Key Terms and People
A Changing Medieval World (1000-1450)

7.6 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Europe.

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A Changing Medieval World

Key Terms and People

    Section 1

    crop rotation: changing the use of fields over time

    fallow: unplanted

    three-field system: a system where a third of the land was planted in spring crops, summer crops, and the final field was left fallow

    guild: a group of people practicing the same craft, usually in the same city, who have joined together for their common good

    Section 2

    mendicant: orders whose members lived on donations and worked in the community, not in monasteries

    St. Francis of Assisi: As a young man, Francis was wealthy and spoiled. Then, he had a powerful religious experience. He felt called to live as Jesus had lived.

    St. Clare of Assisi: Claire and her followers took a vow of poverty and aimed to live the life of devotion to God. Their order became known as the Poor Clares.

    cathedral: a major church, headed by a bishop who oversees a religion's churches

    University: schools, or groups of schools, that train scholars at the highest levels

    Thomas Aquinas: Aquinas wanted to show that there is no conflict between faith and human reason

    natural law: laws in nature that are basic to both the natural world and human affairs

    Section 3

    famine: a serious shortage of food

    Joan of Arc: She led French forces to victory against the English.

    epidemic: a widespread outbreak of a disease

    bubonic plague: a deadly infection

    scapegoat: people who are blamed for a problem that they did not cause