Chapter 18, Section 1
The Reformation - The Origins of the Reformation
Standard: 7.9.1
  • List to make a list of the causes for the internal turmoil in and weakening of the Catholic Church (e.g., tax policies, selling of indulgences).
The Origins of the Reformation


Reformation: a religious movement that began in the 1500s to reform the Catholic Church

Martin Luther: a monk who challenged the Catholic Church

indulgence: pardons for sins

John Calvin: The Institutes of Christian Religion in 1536. In it, he set out the basic ideas of the Protestant faith.

predestination: the idea that God had long ago determined who would gain salvation

theocracy: a government ruled by religious leaders

William Tyndale: printed an English translation of the New Testament of the Bible

Section Notes

  1. Luther Challenges the Church

      Early Life of Luther

    • Luther was caught one day in a severe thunderstorm
    • because he lived, Luther entered a monastery

      Church Abuses

    • luxurious houses, broken religious vows, poorly trained priests
    • neglected their duties, imposed heavy taxes, selling indulgences

      Luther's 95 Theses are

    • list of 95 arguments against the sale of indulgences
    • many church leaders saw the 95 theses as an attack on the church

      Diet at Worms

    • an assembly, diet, put Luther on trial for his attack on a church
    • "I cannot and will not retract anything."

  2. The Protestant Movement Grows

      Calvinist Thought

    • Calvin studied to be a priest, but converted to a Protestant
    • Calvin believed that salvation was gained through faith alone (Chart, pg. 508)
    • taught predestination

      A "City of God"

    • Calvin applied his ideas to government
    • Geneva, Switzerland, he stressed hard work, honesty, and morality

      The Spread of Protestant Ideas

    • Martin Luther, first translation of the Bible into German
    • William Tyndale, English translation of the New Testament
    • William Tyndale was tried for heresy and burned at the stake

Summary: In the 1500s, corruption created turmoil in the Catholic Church. Reformers challenged the church and fostered new Protestant sects across Europe.

Study Guide Questions

  • CP 507. Why did Martin Luther challenge the Catholic Church?

  • CP 509. Why was John Calvin one of the most important figures of the Reformation?

  • CYP 509, 1a. List three abuses of the Catholic Church in the 1500s.

  • CYP 509, 1b. How did Martin Luther's 95 theses address Church abuses?

  • CYP 509, 2a. What were the basic teachings of John Calvin?

  • CYP 509, 2b. How did Calvinism affect life in the city of Geneva?

    Practice Test

  • Homework: Read chapter 18, section 1, and choose one assignment;
    1. Workbook Chapter 18, section 1 (Page 224)
    2. Answer three of the study guide questions using complete sentences.
    3. Draw a picture of something important from this section and summarize this section of the text (three sentences minimum).