Chapter 19, Section 2
The Conquest of the Americas
Standard: 7.7.3
  • Explain how and where each empire arose and how the Aztec and Incan empires were defeated by the Spanish.
The Conquest of the Americas



  1. The Spanish Conquer Two Empires

      CortÚs Defeats Moctezuma

    • CortÚs formed alliances with the Aztecs' enemies
    • CortÚs began a siege of the city, a smallpox epidemic killed many Aztecs
    • the survivors surrendered in August 1521

      Atahualpa Falls into Pizarro's Trap

    • Francisco Pizarro, in search of gold, goes to the Inca empire
    • Atahualpa, the new Incan leader, after a smallpox epidemic
    • Atahualpa went to a peaceful meeting and was taken prisoner and killed

  2. The Impact of Conquest

      The Treasure of the Empire

    • The wealth of the Aztecs and Incas filled Spain's treasury.
    • by 1660, 200 tons (400,000 lbs.) of gold and 18 tons of silver
    • pirates attacked Spanish ships, other Europeans sent their own explorers

      The Loss of People and Cultures

    • beautiful art made of gold was melted down
    • cities and temples were wrecked
    • their books of history were burned
    • millions of Aztecs and Incas died from smallpox

Summary: Spain conquered the Aztec and Inca empires. These conquest brought great wealth to Spain but great loss to the Native Americans and their cultures.

Study Guide Questions

  • CP 544. How did the Spanish defeat the Aztecs and Incas?

  • CP 546. What happened to Aztec and Inca artwork made of gold?

  • CYP 546, 1a. How did the numbers of Spanish conquistadors compare with the armies of Aztecs and Incas?

  • CYP 546, 1b. How did the Spanish conquer those empires despite the difference in numbers?

  • CYP 546, 2a. How was Spain enriched by its colonies?

  • CYP 546, 2b. How were the riches carried to Spain?

  • CYP 546, 2c. How did Spanish rule affect native peoples?

    Practice Test

  • Homework: Read chapter 19, section 2, and choose one assignment;
    1. Workbook Chapter 19, section 2 (Page 241)
    2. Answer three of the study guide questions using complete sentences.
    3. Draw a picture of something important from this section and summarize this section of the text (three sentences minimum).