Chapter 20, Section 1
The Origins of the Scientific Revolution
Standard: 7.10.1
  • Discuss the roots of the scientific revolution (e.g., Greek rationalism; Jewish, Christian, and Muslim science; Renaissance science; Renaissance humanism; new knowledge from global exploration).
Standard: 7.10.2
  • Understand the significance of the new scientific theories (E.G., those of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Newton) and the significance of new inventions (E.G., the telescope, microscope, thermometer, barometer).
The Origins of Modern Capitalism


factor: thing that influences or causes a situation

rationalism: the belief that knowledge can be gained through the use of reason

microscope: a device that uses a lens to magnify objects

barometer: an instrument that measures changes in air pressure

  1. Ancient and Medieval Science

      Islamic Science

    • Greek learning was preserved in the Islamic world
    • Muslim mathematician developed algebra (al-jabr)

      Medieval View of the Universe

    • an Earth-centered universe
    • the idea was based on the Greek philosopher Aristotle
    • the Church taught that God had put Earth at the center of the universe

  2. Science During the Renaissance: the three important factors inspired this renewed interest in science.


    • willing to challenge accepted beliefs
    • valued individual scholarship

      Global Exploration

    • The Age of Exploration 1400-1500
    • showed the limits of ancient and medieval science

      New Tools for Science

    • the telescope
    • the microscope
    • the thermometer and barometer

Summary: The ancient Greeks applied reason to studies of the natural world. Muslim scholars later preserved much of this science. During the late Middle Ages, Europeans combined Greek and Muslim science with Christian teaching. Renaissance humanism, global exploration, and scientific tools sparked renewed interest in science.

Study Guide Questions

  • CP 567. Which idea of ancient Greeks was adopted by the Christian Church?

  • CP 569. What inventions helped early scientists see the world in new ways?

  • CYP 569, 1a. How was Greek learning preserved?

  • CYP 569, 1b. Explain how Aristotle's ideas contributed to the view that Earth was the center of the universe?

  • CYP 569, 2a. What three factors helped renew interest in science?

  • CYP 569, 2b. How my new inventions lead to new scientific knowledge?

    Practice Test

  • Homework: Read chapter 20, section 1, and choose one assignment;
    1. Workbook Chapter 20, section 1 (Page 252)
    2. Answer three of the study guide questions using complete sentences.
    3. Draw a picture of something important from this section and summarize this section of the text (three sentences minimum).