Chapter 20, Section 2
The Rise of Modern Science
Standard: 7.10.2
  • Understand the significance of the new scientific theories (E.G., those of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Newton) and the significance of new inventions (E.G., the telescope, microscope, thermometer, barometer).
Standard: 7.10.3
  • Understand the scientific method advanced by Bacon and Descartes, the influence of new scientific rationalism on the growth of democratic ideas, and the coexistence of science with traditional religious beliefs.
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The Rise of Modern Science

Vocabulary

reject: to refuse to believe in or agree with something

theory: idea that is intended to explain something about life or the world

Nicholas Copernicus: the first scientist to challenge the medieval view of the universe

Johannes Kepler: Kepler used mathematics to prove that Copernicus was right. Earth did revolve around the sun.

Galileo Galilei: Galileo was one of the first scientist to use experiments to discover laws of nature. He was the first person to see that the moon is not smooth, uniform, and precisely spherical.

Isaac Newton: Isaac Newton believed planet's orbit the sun because they are pulled toward the sun (gravity).

Francis Bacon: Bacon championed the use of inductive reasoning in scientific investigation .

René Descartes: Descartes thought it was necessary to doubt everything except ideas that were true beyond doubt.

inductive reasoning: the process of reasoning from specific facts to general principles

scientific method: a method for gaining new knowledge using observation, experiments, and careful reasoning

hypothesis: possible answer

  1. A New View of the Universe

      Nicholas Copernicus

    • challenged the medieval view of the universe
    • believed the sun was the center of the universe

      Johannes Kepler

    • used mathematics to prove that the earth revolved around the sun

      Galileo Galilei

    • used experiments to discover laws of nature
    • discovered the mathematically predictable rate of acceleration
    • built telescope, observed the moon, the sun, and Jupiter's moons

      The Catholic Church Versus Galileo

    • church officials brought Galileo to trial for heresy

      Isaac Newton

    • discovered laws that described the motion of objects on earth
    • the force of gravity pulls one object toward another
    • gravity depends on two forces, distance and matter

  2. Science and Reason

      Francis Bacon

    • supported the use of inductive reasoning in scientific investigations
    • process of reasoning from specific facts to general principles

      René Descartes

    • doubt everything except ideas that were true beyond doubt
    • "I think, therefore I am"

      The Scientific Method

    • method for gaining the knowledge using observation, experiments, and careful reasoning

Summary: Beginning with Copernicus in the 1500s, scholars proved that the sun is the center of the universe. Newton reinforced the sun centered model of the universe by developing the law of gravity. The work of bacon and Descartes led to the development of the scientific method.

Study Guide Questions

  • CP 573. How did the earth-centered model of the universe change?

  • CP 575. What is the scientific method?

  • CYP 575, 1a. What was Copernicus's new view of the universe?

  • CYP 575, 1b. How did Newton bring together the work of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo?

  • CYP 575, 2a. Which two great thinkers helped develop the scientific method?

  • CYP 575, 2b. How did the scientific method differ from previous attempts to develop knowledge?

    Practice Test

  • Homework: Read chapter 20, section 2, and choose one assignment;
    1. Workbook Chapter 20, section 2 (Page 255)
    2. Answer three of the study guide questions using complete sentences.
    3. Draw a picture of something important from this section and summarize this section of the text (three sentences minimum).